Author: Steve Weaver

That Time Abraham Lincoln Threatened to Move to Russia

The early 1850s saw the rise of a political party known as the “American Party.” They were an anti-immigrant, anti-Catholic party that called for “the exclusion of Catholics and other ‘foreigners’ from public office.” They were known popularly as the “Know-Nothing party” because party members were told to tell those who questioned them, “I know nothing.” They would eventually fizzle out, due in part to their association with slavery proponents in the South.

Lincoln was strongly opposed to the beliefs of the “Know-Nothing” party. So much so that he hinted that if their ideas should gain the ascendancy, he would consider becoming an immigrant himself—to Russia! In an 1855 letter to his friend, Louisvillian Joshua Speed, Lincoln declared, “I am not a Know-Nothing. That is certain. How could I be?” He went on to say,

Our progress in degeneracy appears to me to be pretty rapid. As a nation, we began by declaring “all men are created equal.” We now practically read it, “all men are created equal, except negroes.” When the Know-Nothings get control, it will read “all men are created equal, except negroes, and foreigners, and catholics.” When it comes to this, I should prefer emigrating to some country where they make no pretence of loving liberty—Russia, for instance, where despotism can be taken pure, without the base alloy of hypocrisy.

It is interesting to consider that Lincoln’s commitment to America’s founding idea that “all men are created equal” animated him a full eight years before he would deliver the immortal opening words of the Gettysburg Address “Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.”

Sources:

Thomas H. Johnson, “Know-Nothing party,” in The Oxford Companion to American History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1966).

Abraham Lincoln to Joshua Speed, August 24, 1855, Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, 2:323. [Complete text of letter online.]

Bible Software for the Pastor On the Go

logos-software-center.png

I love books. I have thousands of them that surround me both at my home and church study. In the past couple of years, however, I have discovered the advantage of having a digital library for life on the go. Between my ministry at Farmdale Baptist Church and my ministry at the Kentucky State Capitol, along with a few other opportunities here and there, I usually preach or teach the Bible six to eight times a week. This requires me not only to stay on the go, but also to be able to study on the go. This is where Logos Bible Software has become a huge blessing to me over the past year or so.

Logos allows me to have access to a complete biblical and theological library anywhere and anytime. This is extremely helpful as I am sometimes studying at home, other times at church, and even more often at the local coffee shop. Before I started using Logos I would have to carry a box of commentaries with me everywhere I went (I know you can photocopy specific pages and take with you in a folder, but I have never been that far ahead in preparation and never had a secretary to do that kind of task.). Even on family vacations or visiting family on holiday, I would carry a large box of books with me because for the pastor there is always a Sunday approaching soon. Now, while I still take some books, most of my reference works are readily available on my tablet or laptop. I often have as many as ten different commentaries on a passage open on my Logos program on my laptop. Those commentaries stay open throughout a sermon series to exactly where I am in the book of the Bible (you can configure the settings to sync the books to the same passage and to open where you close it each time). This is both a time and space saver. I no longer have to several books open on my desk at the same time (although I still do it sometimes for fun and old times sake!).

Another feature that I love about Logos is the app for my Android tablet (the same is available for iPads). It is a free app that provides access to your entire digital library. In other words, any book that you own for your desktop software is available on the app (I should mention this app also works on smartphones.). What I love most about the app is that it allows you to read the books in your Logos library in Kindle-like fashion. One of the difficulties with owning virtually any of the Logos packages, is that you have more books than you can even remember that you have. Also, having books that are only accessible on your computer are not very reader-friendly. Using the app enables you to read one book at a time, whether at home at night waiting to fall asleep or on the beach. This gives you a virtually inexhaustible supply of reading and study material while on the go.

Disclaimer: Logos provided me a free copy of one of their base packages for the promise of a review. I was not required to give a positive review. Because of the usefulness of the software as noted above, I have subsequently purchased multiple add-ons to the original base package given to me. 

 

Hercules Collins on the Hypostatic Union

Hercules Collins (1647-1702) made clear his own personal commitment to this union of two natures in Christ in his own writings. Among his 36 recommendations to preachers on how to rightly handle the Word of God in The Temple Repair’d, Collins included an explanation of how scriptural language often reflects this understanding of the union of the two natures.

In holy Scripture you will sometimes find that which properly belongs to one Nature in Christ is attributed to another by virtue of the personal Union; hence it is that the Church is said to be purchased with the blood of God; not that God simply consider’d hath Blood, for he is a Spirit; but it is attributed to God, because of the Union of the Human and Divine Nature. Moreover, it is said that the Son of Man was in Heaven, when he was discoursing upon Earth: Here that which was proper to the Godhead and the Divine Nature, is attributed to the Human Nature, because of the Union of the Natures.

Here Collins’ commitment to the hypostatic union becomes an important hermeneutical principle. He indicated the importance of explaining this in one’s preaching “with all the clearness imaginable,” because this doctrine “is so necessary to Man’s Salvation.” For Collins and his fellow Particular Baptists, doctrine mattered. Indeed, the salvation of individuals depended upon the proper explication of the key doctrines of the Christian faith. Collins considered the doctrine of the hypostatic union of Christ’s two natures to be at the very core of orthodox Christianity.

In his Marrow of Gospel-History, Collins extols the theological truth of the hypostatic union in poetic terms. While attempting to describe the unique identity of the virgin born God-man, Collins expressed wonder at the mystery of the incarnation.

But yet that King, and holy Thing,
Which was in Mary’s Womb,
Was God indeed, of Abr’am’s Seed,
True God, and yet true Man.
Who understands, how God and Man,
Should in one Person dwell?
One Person true, yet Natures two,
But one Immanuel.

Collins does not seem to know how to explain the mystery of the incarnation, but he is committed to affirming and rejoicing in this divinely-revealed truth. Later in the same work, Collins expressed a similar amazement at how God was able to preserve Jesus as a man from the effects of original sin.

And tho this Man from David sprang,
He’s pure without, within:
And tho is made of Abraham’s Seed,
Hath no Orig’nal Sin.
Pow’r Infinite can separate
Between the Virgin’s Sin,
And Virgin’s Seed, for there is need
Christ be a holy Thing.

The sinlessness of Christ was important to Collins because the God-man had to be fully human, yet sinless in order to atone for the sins of other humans. Collins knew that it was the mystery of the divine-human union which preserved Jesus from the effects of original sin. He expressed the connection between the union of the two natures and the sinless of Christ and mankind’s salvation in the following verse.

A King of Peace, and Priest most high,
Who offer’d once for all;
Not for his own, but others Sins,
Himself, not Beasts did fall.
The Peoples Covenant thou art,
In Substance, Person, Name;
And hence art called Immanuel,
Two Natures, Person one.

Once again the important issue for Collins was how this doctrine relates to the doctrine of salvation. Humans need a savior who is simultaneously divine, human, and sinless. This is precisely the kind of savior which Collins saw set forth in Scripture. Therefore, this doctrine was of central importance. In the end, the never-ending union of the divine and human natures of Christ serve as an illustration of the eternal union between God and his elect because of the work of Christ.

That tho by Sin Man’s separate
From God, the chiefest Good,
Yet now in Christ united are;
Man shall live still with God.
And if the Union cannot cease,
Call’d Hypostatical;
No more can that ’tween God and his,
Because ’tis Eternal.

Seventeenth-Century English Baptists on the Incarnation

The Second London Confession of Faith was issued, in part, to set the record straight with the general public that Thomas Collier’s heterodox views on the Trinity and the eternality of Christ’s human nature did not represent the Particular Baptist community as a whole. The latter is addressed in the confession’s strong statement on the full divinity and humanity of Christ united in his one person.

The Son of God, the second Person in the Holy Trinity, being very and eternal God, the brightness of the Fathers glory, of one substance and equal with him: who made the World, who upholdeth and governeth all things he hath made: did when the fullness of time was come take unto him mans nature, with all the Essential properties, and common infirmities thereof, yet without sin: being conceived by the Holy Spirit in the Womb of the Virgin Mary, the Holy Spirit coming down upon her, and the power of the most High overshadowing her, and so was made of a Woman, of the Tribe of Judah, of the Seed of Abraham, and David according to the Scriptures: So that two whole, perfect, and distinct natures, were inseparably joined together in one Person: without conversion, composition, or confusion: which Person is very God, and very Man, yet one Christ, the only Mediator between God and Man.

Contra Collier’s position on the eternality of Christ’s human nature, the confession asserts that Christ “did when the fullness of time was come take unto him mans nature, with all the Essential properties, and common infirmities thereof, yet without sin.” The human nature was assumed at the incarnation and did not exist prior to this point in human history. At this point, the framers of the Second London Confession were following the wording found in the Westminster Confession and Savoy Declaration. Just after this section, however, the Second London adapts language from the First London Confession not included in either of these historic Protestant confessions. This wording further emphasized the full humanity assumed by the second person of the Trinity at Bethlehem. They added: “the Holy Spirit coming down upon her, and the power of the most High overshadowing her, and so was made of a Woman, of the Tribe of Judah, of the Seed of Abraham, and David according to the Scriptures.” This issue was important because these Baptists believed that the same human nature possessed by Eve, Judah, Abraham, and David was shared by the Christ. Only in this way could the prophecies concerning the Messiah’s coming be fulfilled.

A Parable of the Law and the Gospel (Christian in Interpreter’s House)

In Pilgrim’s Progress, John Bunyan describes a scene in which Christian enters the house of one called “Interpreter” (who represents the Holy Spirit). In this house he is shown many “profitable” things. The first such is a picture of a true minister of the gospel. The second thing shown to Christian was a dusty room:

Then he took him by the hand, and led him into a very large parlor that was full of dust, because never swept; the which after he had reviewed it a little while, the Interpreter called for a man to sweep. Now, when he began to sweep, the dust began so abundantly to fly about, that Christian had almost therewith been choked. Then said the Interpreter to a damsel that stood by, “Bring hither water, and sprinkle the room;” the which when she had done, it was swept and cleansed with pleasure.

Christian: Then said Christian, What means this?

Interpreter: The Interpreter answered, This parlor is the heart of a man that was never sanctified by the sweet grace of the Gospel. The dust is his original sin, and inward corruptions, that have defiled the whole man. He that began to sweep at first, is the law; but she that brought water, and did sprinkle it, is the Gospel. Now whereas thou sawest, that so soon as the first began to sweep, the dust did so fly about that the room by him could not be cleansed, but that thou wast almost choked therewith; this is to show thee, that the law, instead of cleansing the heart (by its working) from sin, doth revive, Rom. 7:9, put strength into, 1 Cor. 15:56, and increase it in the soul, Rom. 5:20, even as it doth discover and forbid it; for it doth not give power to subdue. Again, as thou sawest the damsel sprinkle the room with water, upon which it was cleansed with pleasure, this is to show thee, that when the Gospel comes in the sweet and precious influences thereof to the heart, then, I say, even as thou sawest the damsel lay the dust by sprinkling the floor with water, so is sin vanquished and subdued, and the soul made clean, through the faith of it, and consequently fit for the King of glory to inhabit. John 15:3; Eph. 5:26; Acts 15:9; Rom. 16:25,26.

A Picture of a True Minister (from John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress)

In Pilgrim’s Progress, John Bunyan describes a scene in which Christian enters the house of one called “Interpreter” (who represents the Holy Spirit). In this house he is shown many “profitable” things. The first such is a picture which is described as follows:

Christian saw the picture a very grave person hang up against the wall; and this was the fashion of it: It had eyes lifted up to heaven, the best of books in his hand, the law of truth was written upon its lips, the world was behind its back; it stood as if it pleaded with men, and a crown of gold did hang over its head.

After Christian asked what the picture meant, Interpreter explained:

The man whose picture this is, is one of a thousand: he can beget children (1 Cor. 4:15), travail in birth with children (Gal. 4:19), and nurse them himself when they are born. And whereas thou seest him with his eyes lift up to heaven, the best of books in his hand, and the law of truth writ on his lips: it is to show thee, that his work is to know, and unfold dark things to sinners; even as also thou seest him stand as if he pleaded with men. And whereas thou seest the world as cast behind him, and that a crown hangs over his head; that is to show thee, that slighting and despising the things that are present, for the love that he hath to his Master’s service, he is sure in the world that comes next, to have glory for his reward. Now, said the Interpreter, I have showed thee this picture first, because the man whose picture this is, is the only man whom the Lord of the place whither thou art going hath authorized to be thy guide in all difficult places thou mayest meet with in the way: wherefore take good heed to what I have showed thee, and bear well in thy mind what thou hast seen, lest in thy journey thou meet with some that pretend to lead thee right, but their way goes down to death.

The footnote in this edition adds:

This is a true picture of a gospel minister, one whom the Lord the Spirit has called and qualified for preaching the everlasting gospel. He is one who despises the world – is dead to its pleasures and joys; his chief aim is to exalt and glorify the Lord Jesus, his atoning blood, justifying righteousness, and finished salvation; and his greatest glory is to bring sinners to Christ, to point him out as the one way to them and to edify and build up saints in him. But there are many who profess to do this, but turn poor sinners out of the way, and point them to a righteousness of their own for justification in whole or in part. Of these the Spirit teaches us to beware; the former, he leads and directs souls to love and esteem highly for their labours and faith in the Lord, and zeal for his honour and glory, and for the salvation of souls. Take heed what you hear. – Mark iv.24.

What a beautiful and convicting picture of a true gospel minister! May God grant multitudes of such, while delivering us from those who would lead astray.

How to Pray for this Election

Several weeks ago I was asked by Ryan Hoselton to provide some guiding principles that I share with our church about how to pray for this election along with a sample prayer. My response, along with responses from Pastors John Onwuchekwa and Juan Sanchez, was posted on Christianity Today’s “The Local Church” blog. Below is what I offered.

Guiding Principles:

I want to remind our congregation to pray first for the spiritual renewal of our nation in recognition that our greatest need is spiritual, not political. I want us to remember that all human kingdoms have failed and will fail. The only eternal kingdom is the kingdom of Christ. I do, however, want us to pray that American citizens will exercise their right to vote according to their conscience, informed by principles of wisdom and integrity.

I want our congregation to pray specifically for candidates from both major political parties, as well as independent or third-party candidates. I want us to pray that they’ll all be or become people of wisdom and integrity, and for their service on behalf of the American people. I want to pray for the spiritual condition of each man and woman running for the presidency, and that if they’re not trusting in Christ alone for their salvation, they turn to Christ in repentance and faith.

Finally, I want to remind our congregation that we need to pray and vote for local and state leaders as well. I encourage the use of the website pray1tim2.org as a resource to help them pray for state leaders.

 Prayer:

Our Father, we come before you recognizing that we desperately need you to intervene in our nation and send revival to our land. We confess that we’ve rebelled against you and tried to establish ourselves as kings instead of submitting to your authority. Forgive us for trusting in our government and our leaders when we should have been trusting in you alone.

We thank you for allowing us to live in this country where we have the freedom to vote for our leaders. Please help us as a nation to vote according to consciences that are informed by principles of integrity and wisdom. Please bless and protect those of all political parties who are running for office, from the White House to the statehouse to the courthouse. Grant that those seeking office would do so for the good of others, and not their own prosperity. May they lead with wisdom and integrity. Most importantly, grant that they may know you as their king in order that they may rule as humble servants in this land and for eternity with you, along with all the saints.

In humble submission to your sovereign rule, amen.

To read the original post with the other responses, visit here.